# Thermodynamics II

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Thermodynamical operations are
(1) Isothermal process : A thermodynamic process that takes place at constant temperature is called an isothermal process.
- Equation of state for isothermal process : PV = constant.
- Work done during an isothermal process

(2) Adiabatic process : A thermodynamic process that takes place in such a manner that no heat enters or leaves the system is called adiabatic process

Reversible process :- It is a process in which the system can be retraced to its original state by reversing the condiditions.
Irreversible process:- It is a process in which the system cannot be retraced to its original state by reversing the conditions.

Second law of thermodynamics:

Kelvin’s statement of second law :– It is impossible to derive a continous supply of work by cooling a body to a temperature lower than that of the coldest of its surrounding.

Clausius statement of second law :– It is impossible for a self –acting machine unaided by any external agency to transfer heat from a body to another body at higher temperature.

Heat Engine :– a heat engine is a device for converting heat energy continuously into a mechanical work.
-> Component of heat engine- (i) source of heat (ii) Sink (iii) Working substance

Efficiency of heat Engine :- It is defined as the ratio of the external work obtained to the amount of heat energy absorbed from the heat source.
Mathematically

Carnot’s heat Engine :- it is an ideal heat Engine which is based on carnot’s reversible cycle.
Efficiency of carnot’s heat Engine
Refrigerator or Heat pump:- it is heat engine working backward.

Co-efficient of performance :- It is the ratio of heat absorbed from cold body to the work done by the refrigerator.
Mathematically

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