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Saturday, 11 March 2017

Thermodynamics I


Thermal Equilibrium:- Two systems are said to be in thermal equilibrium with each other if they have the same temperature.

Thermo dynamical system:- An assembly of large numbers of particles having same temperature, pressure etc is called thermo dynamical system.

Thermodynamic variables:- The variables which determine the thermodynamic behavior of a system are called thermodynamic variables.

Zeroth law of Thermodynamics :- IT states that if two system A and B are in thermal equilibrium with a third system C , then the two system A and B are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

Thermodynamic Process :- A thermodynamic process is said to be taking place , if the thermodynamic variable of the system change with time.

Types of thermodynamic Process:-

(1) Isothermal process:- process taking place at constant temperature.
(2) Adiabatic process:- process where there is no exchange of heat.
(3) Isochoric process:- process taking place at constant volume
(4) Isobaric process:- Process taking place at constant Pressure.
(5) Cyclic process:- Process where the system returns to its original state.

Equation of state :- A relation between pressure, volume and temperature for a system is called its equation of state

Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) :- The graphical representation of the state of a system with the help of two thermodynamical variables is called indicator diagram of the system.

Internal energy of a gas :- It is the sum of kinetic energy and the intermolecular potential energy of the molecules of the gas. Internal energy is a function of temperature.

First law of Thermodynamics :- It states that if an amount of heat dQ I added to a system , a part of heat is used in increasing its internal energy while the remaining part of heat may be used up as the external work done
Mathematically

Work done during expansion / compression of gas:- When the volume of gas changes from
V1 to V2 , the work done is given by
= Area under the P -V diagram.

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