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Wednesday, 8 March 2017

Ray Optics and Optical Instruments - V


Angle of Deviation :
The angle of deviation δm is minimum, when ray passes symmetrically through the prism. The refractive index μ of the prism is

Dispersion:
The splitting of white light into constituent colours is called the dispersion. A prism causes deviation as well as dispersion.

Optical Instruments:

Optical instruments are the devices which help human eye in observing highly magnified images of tiny objects, for detailed examination and in observing very far objects whether terrestrial or astronomical.

Human Eye:

a) It is the most familiar and complicated optical instrument provided by nature to living beings. In this device, light enters through a curved front surface, called cornea, passes through the pupil – central hole in the iris.

b) The light is focused by the eye lens on the retina.

c) The retina senses light intensity and colour and transmits the electrical signals via optical nerves to the brain.

d) Brain finally processes the information.

Microscope:
a) A simple microscope is a short focal length convex lens.

b) The magnifying power of a simple microscope is
c) The magnifying power, M of a compound microscope is

Where, Mo and Me denotes the linear magnifying of the objective and eye lens.

Telescope:

a)The magnifying power, M of refracting telescope is

Where L is the length of the telescope.
b) For the final image is formed at the least distance of distant vision, the magnifying power is

c)The resolving power of a telescope

Where, l = wavelength of light, θ = angle subtended by the point object at the objective and d = diameter of the objective of the telescope.

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