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Saturday, 11 March 2017

Nuclei - III


Binding Energy:
a) It may be defined as the energy required to break a nucleus into its constituent protons and neutrons and to separate them to such a large distance that they may not interact with each other.
b) It may also be defined as the surplus energy which the nucleus gives up by virtue of their attractions which they become bound together to form a nucleus.
c) The binding energy of a nucleus ZXA  is,

Binding Energy per Nucleon:
It is average energy required to extract one nucleon from the nucleus.
It is obtained by dividing the binding energy of a nucleus by its mass number.
Nuclear Forces:
a) These are the strong in attractive forces which hold protons and neutrons together in a tiny nucleus.
b) These are short range forces which operate over very short distance of about 2 – 3 fm of separation between any two nucleons.
c) The nuclear force does not depend on the charge of the nucleon.

Nuclear Density:
The density of a nucleus is independent of the size of the nucleus and is given by,

Radioactivity:
a) It is the phenomenon of spontaneous disintegration of the nucleus of an atom with the emission of one or more radiations like a -particles, b -particles or g - rays.
b) The substances which spontaneously emit penetrating radiation are called radioactive substances.

Radioactivity Displacement Law:

It states that,
a) When a radioactive nucleus emits an a -particle, atomic number decreases by 2 and mass number decreases by 4.
b) When a radioactive nucleus emits b -particle, its atomic number increases by 1 but mass number remains same.
c) The emission of a g -particle does not change the mass number or the atomic number of the radioactive nucleus. The g -particle emission by a radioactive nucleus lowers its energy state.

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