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Saturday, 11 March 2017

Nuclei - II


Electron Volt:
It is defined as the energy acquired by an electron when it is accelerated through a potential difference of 1 volt and is denoted by eV.

Atomic Mass Unit:
a) It is 1/12 th of the actual mass of a carbon atom of isotope 6C12 It is denoted by amu
or just by u.
b) 1 amu = 1.660565 X 10-27 kg
c) The energy equivalence of 1 amu is 1 amu = 931 MeV

Discovery of Neutrons:
a) Neutrons were discovered by Chadwick in 1932.
b) When beryllium nuclei are bombarded by alpha-particles, highly penetrating radiations are emitted, which consists of neutral particles, each having mass nearly that of a proton. These particles were called neutrons.

c) A free neutron decays spontaneously, with a half- life of about 900 s, into a proton, electron and an antineutrino

Size of the Nucleus:
a) It is found that a nucleus of mass number A has a radius
b) This implies that the volume of the nucleus, which is proportional to R3

Density of the Nucleus:
Density of nucleus is constant; independent of A, for all nuclei and density of nuclear matter is approximately 2.3 x 1017 kg m-3 which is very large as compared to ordinary matter, say water which is 103 kg m-3
.
Mass-Energy equivalence:
Einstein proved that it is necessary to treat mass as another form of energy. He gave the mass-energy equivalence relation as,
E = mc2
Where m is the mass and c is the velocity of light in vacuum.

Mass Defect:

The difference between the rest mass of a nucleus and the sum of the rest masses of its constituent nucleons is called its mass defect. It is given by,

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