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Saturday, 11 March 2017

Nuclei - I


Atomic Number:
The number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number. It is denoted by Z.

Mass number:

The total number of protons and neutrons present in a nucleus is called the mass number of the element. It is denoted by A.

No. of Protons, Electrons, nucleons and Neutrons in an Atom:
a) Number of protons in an atom = Z
b) Number of electrons in an atom = Z
c) Number of nucleons in an atom = A
d) Number of neutrons in an atom = N = A – Z.

Nuclear Mass:
The total mass of the protons and neutrons present in a nucleus is called the nuclear mass.

Nuclide:
A nuclide is a specific nucleus of an atom characterized by its atomic number Z and mass number A. It is represented as, ZXA

Where X = chemical symbol of the element, Z = atomic number and A = mass number

Isotopes:
a) The atoms of an element which have the same atomic number but different mass number are called isotopes.
b) Isotopes have similar chemical properties but different physical properties.

Isobars:
The atoms having the same mass number but different atomic number are called isobars.

Isotones:
The nuclides having the same number of neutrons are called isotones.

Isomers:
These are nuclei with same atomic number and same mass number but in different energy states.

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