**CONCEPTS.**

**Centre of mass**of a body is a point where the entire mass of the body can be supposed to be concentrated. For a system of n-particles, the centre of mass is given by

**Torque τ**:

The turning effect of a force with respect to some axis, is called moment of force or torque due to the force. Torque is measured as the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the force from the axis of rotation.

**Angular momentum**

line of axis of rotation.

**Mathematically:**Ifis linear momentum of the particle and ⃗ its position vector, then angular momentum of the particle,

**(a)In Cartesian coordinates :**

**(b)In polar coordinates :**

Where φ is angle between the linear momentum vector

and the position of vector

S.I unit of angular momentum is kg m

^{2}s

^{-1}

^{}

**Geometrically,**angular momentum of a particle is equal to twice the product of mass of the particle and areal velocity of its radius vector about the given axis.

**Relation**between torque and angular momentum:

(i)

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