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Thursday, 2 March 2017

Electric Charges and Fields - I



Like Charges and Unlike Charges:
Like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other.

Conductors and Insulators:

Conductors allow movement of electric charge through them, insulators do not.

Quantization of Electric Charge:
It means that total charge (q) of a body is always an integral multiple of a basic quantum of charge (e)
q = ne
where n = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, ….

Additivity of Electric Charges:
Total charge of a system is the algebraic sum of all individual charges in the system.

Conservation of Electric Charges:
The total charge of an isolated system remains uncharged with time.

Superposition Principle:
It is the properties of forces with which two charges attract or repel each other are not affected by the presence of a third (or more) additional charge(s).

The Electric Field E at a Point due to a Charge Configuration:
It is the force on a small positive test charges q placed at the point divided by a
magnitude

It is radially outwards from q, if q is positive and radially inwards if q is negative.
E at a point varies inversely as the square of its distance from Q, the plot of E versus r will look like the figure given below.
Coulomb’s Law:
The mutual electrostatic force between two point charges q1 and q2  is proportional to the product q1 q2  and inversely proportional to the square of the distance r21  separating them.






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