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Friday, 10 March 2017

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter - IV


Photocell:
a) It is an arrangement which converts light energy into electric energy.

b) It works on the principle of photoelectric effect.

c) It is used in cinematography for the reproduction of sound.

Dual Nature of Radiation:

Light has dual nature. It manifests itself as a wave in diffraction, interference, polarization, etc., while it shows particle nature in photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, etc.

Dual Nature of Matter:
a) As there is complete equivalence between matter (mass) and radiation (energy) and the principle of symmetry is always obeyed, de Broglie suggested that moving particles like protons, neutrons, electrons, etc., should be associated with waves known as de Broglie waves and their wavelength is called de Broglie wavelength.

b) The de Broglie wavelength of a particle of mass m moving with velocity v is given by,
Where h is Planck’s constant.

Davison and Germer Experiment:
This experiment help to confirm the existence of de Broglie waves associated with electrons.

De Broglie Wavelength of an Electron:
The wavelength associated with an electron bean accelerated through a potential.

de Broglie wavelength associated with the particle of momentum p is,

Where V is the magnitude of accelerating potential.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle:

Where Dx is uncertainty in position & Dp is uncertainty in momentum

Electron Microscope:
a) It is a device which makes use of accelerated electron beams to study very minute objects like viruses, microbes and the crystal structure of solids.

b) It has a magnification of ~ 105 .

David-Germar Electron Diffraction Arrangement

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