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Monday, 20 March 2017

Chemistry in everyday life - III



1. ANTIMICROBIALS- They tend to prevent/destroy or inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes as bacteria ,virus ,fungi etc .They are classified as
(i)ANTIBIOTICS-Those are the chemicals substances which are produced by micro-organisms.
Eg- Pencillin of loxacin .
NARROW SPECTRUM ANTI-BIOTICS-These are effective mainly against gram positive or gram negative bacteria. Eg- Penicillin , streptomycin.
BROAD SPECTRUM ANTI-BIOTICS-They kill or inhibit a wide range of micro-organisms.
eg- chloramphenicol, tetracydine .
(ii)ANTISEPTICS OR DISINFECTANT-These are which either kill/inhibit the growth of microorganisms Antiseptics are applied to the living tissuses such as wounds, cuts, ulcers etc. eg: furacine, chloroxylenol & terpinol(dettol) .Disinfectant are applied to inanimate objects such as floors , drainage , system.
Eg- 0.2% solution of phenol is an antiseptic while 1% solution is an disinfectant.

2. ANTIFERTILITY DRUGS- These is the chemical substances used to control the pregnancy. They are also called oral contraceptives or birth control pills.
Eg-Mifepristone, norethindrone.

3. ARTIFICIAL SWEETNING AGENTS-These are the chemical compounds which give
sweetening effect to the food without adding calorie.
They are good for diabatic people eg- aspartame, saccharin, alitame , sucrolose.

4. FOOD PRESERVATIVES- They prevents spoilage of food to microbial growth.eg-salt, sugar, and sodium benzoate.

5. CLEANSING AGENTS-
(i) SOAPS- They is sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids.They are obtained by the soapnification reaction, when fatty acids are heated with aqueous sodium hydroxide. They do not work well in hard water.
(iii) TOILETS SOAP-That are prepared by using better grade of fatty acids and excess of
alkali needs to be removed .colour & perfumes are added to make them attractive.
(iv) MEDICATED SOAPS- Substances of medicinal value are added.eg- Buthional , dettol.

6. SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS-They are cleaning agents having properties of soaps, but
actually contain no soap .They can used in both soft and hard water .They are-
(i) ANIONIC DETERGENTS-They are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or
hydrocarbons.eg-sodium lauryl sulphonate. They are effective in acidic solution.
CH3(CH2) CH2OH → CH3(CH2)10CH2OSO3H
(laurylalchol)
→CH3(CH2)10CH2SO3-Na+
(Sodium lauryl sulphonate)
(ii)CATIONIC DETERGENTS- They are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates,
chlorides, or bromides.They are expensive used tolimited extent eg-cytyltrimethyl ammonium bromide
(iii)NON-IONIC DETERGENTS- They does not contain any ions. Some liquid dishwashing detergents which are of non-ionic type .

7. BIODEGREDABLE DETERGENTS- The detergents which are linear and can be attacked by micro-organisms are biodegradable.
Eg -sodium 4-(1-dodecyl) benzene \ sulphonate.

8. NON-BIODEGREDABLE DETERGENTS- The detergents which are branched and cannot be decomposed by micro-organisms are called non-biodegdradable.eg-sodium 4-(1,3,5,7 tetramethyloctl)-benzene sulphonate .It creates water pollution.

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