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Friday, 17 March 2017

Bio molecule - IV


1. Enzymes: These are biocatalyst and generally globular proteins 
e.g., invertase, zymase, phenyl, alaninehydroxylase, urease etc.


2. Vitamins: They are organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts to perform specific biological functions for maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism. They are classified as follows
(i) Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin A,D,E and K. They are stored in liver and adipose tissues.
(ii) Water Soluble Vitamins: B group vitamins and vitamin C. They need to supplied regularly in diet as they are excreted in urine and cannot be stored(except vitamin B12) in our body.
Their deficiency causes diseases.
Biotin (Vit H) is however neither fat nor water soluble. It’s deficiency leads to loss of hair.


3. Nucleic Acids: These are biomolecules which are long chain polymers of nucleotides. They are:
(i) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
(ii) Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
They are responsible for protein synthesis and transfer of genetic characteristics to offspring’s.


4. Composition of Nucleic Acid:
They are made up of pentose sugar(β‐D‐2‐deoxyribose in DNA and β‐D‐ribose in RNA), phosphoric acid and a nitrogen containing heterocyclic compound(base).
DNA‐ Bases present are Adenine(A), Thymine(T),Guanine(G) and Cytosine(C).
RNA‐ contains Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C) and Uracil(U).


5. Nucleoside: The unit formed by the attachment of a base to n1’‐position of sugar (Base+Sugar).

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