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Thursday, 16 March 2017

Bio molecule - I


1. Carbohydrates- These are optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones due to presence of chiral `C’ or the compounds which produce these on hydrolysis except dihydroxy acetone is not optically active.

2. Classification
  • Monosaccharide’s– Those carbohydrates which cannot get hydrolysed e.g. glucose ,fructose, galactose etc.
  • Oligosaccharides- Those carbohydrates which give to or more monosaccharide’s on hydrolysis e.g. sucrose on hydrolysis gives glucose and fructose. Raffinose on hydrolysis gives glucose, fructose and galactose. 
  • Polysaccharides‐ Those carbohydrates which on hydrolysis give large number of monosaccharide’s hydrolysis.eg starch, cellulose, glycogen.
3. Sugar
  • Reducing SugarsThose which reduce Fehling’s or Tollen’s reagent. They have free aldehydic groups eg , glucose, fructose , galactose 
  • Non Reducing SugarsThose which do not reduce Fehling’s or Tollen’s reagent. They do not have free functional group ,e.g., sucrose 
4. Glucose‐ It is a monosaccharide’s with molecular formula C6 H12O6

5. Preparation

(i)From Sucrose C
(ii)From starch
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