Atom - III

Energy Level Diagram:

It is a diagram in which the energies of the different stationary states of an atom are represented by parallel horizontal lines, drawn according to some suitable energy scale.

Spectral Series of Hydrogen Atom:
Whenever an electron in hydrogen atom makes a transition from a higher energy level n2 to a lower energy level n1, the difference of energy appears in the form of a photon of
frequency v is given by,

Different Spectral Series of Hydrogen Atom:
These are as follows:
a) Lyman Series. Here n2 = 2, 3, 4,…..and n1 = 1. This series lies in the ultraviolet region.
b) Balmer Series. Here n2 = 3, 4, 5,…. and n1 = 2. This series lies in the visible region.
c) Paschen Series. Here n2 = 4, 5, 6,….. and n1 = 3. This series lies in the infrared region.
d) Brackett Series. Here n2 = 5, 6, 7,….. and n1 = 4. This series lies in the infrared region.
e) P fund Series. Here n2 = 6, 7, 8,…. and n1 = 5. This series lies in the infrared region.

Excitation Energy:
It is defined as the energy required by an electron of an atom to jump from its ground state to any one of its existed state.

Ionisation Energy:

It is defined as the energy required to remove an electron from an atom, i.e., the energy required to take an electron from its ground state to the outermost orbit (n = ¥ )

Excitation Potential:
It is the accelerating potential which gives sufficient energy to a bombarding electron so to excite the target atom by raising one of its electrons from an inner to and outer orbit.

Ionisation Potential:
It is the accelerating potential which gives to bombarding electron the sufficient energy to an outer orbit.

De Broglie’s Hypothesis:

The electrons having a wavelength l = h/mv gave an explanation for Bohr’s quantised orbits by bringing in the wave particle duality. The orbits correspond to circular standing waves in which the circumference of the orbit equals a whole number of wavelengths.

MASER:
a) Maser stands for ‘Microwaves Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation’.
b) It is simply a device for producing a highly intense, monochromatic coherent and collimated beam of microwaves.

LASER:

a) It stand for ‘Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
b) It is a device used to produce highly intense strong monochromatic coherent and collimated beam of light.

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