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Wednesday, 8 February 2017

Thermodynamics I


Some Important Points and Terms of the Chapter


1. System and the Surroundings: A system in thermodynamics refers to that part of universe in which observations are made and remaining universe constitutes the surroundings. The surroundings include everything other than the system. System and the surroundings together constitute the universe. The wall that separates the system from the surroundings is called boundary

2. Types of the System:
Open System: In an open system, there is exchange of energy and matter between system and surroundings.
Closed System: In a closed system, there is no exchange of matter, but exchange of energy is possible between system and the surroundings.
Isolated system: In an isolated system, there is no exchange of energy or matter between the system and the surroundings

3. State of a System: The state of a system means the condition of the system which is described in terms of certain observable properties such as temp(T), pressure(p), volume (v), etc. of the systems. These properties of a system are called state variables.

4. State Functions: A physical quantity is solid to be state functions of its value depends only upon the state of the system and does not depend upon the path by which this state has been attained.

5. Internal Energy: a quantity which represents the total energy of the system. It may be chemical, electrical and mechanical or any other type of energy you may think of, the sum of all these is the energy of the system. In thermodynamics, we call it the internal energy, U of the system

6. Isothermal Process: When a process is carried out in such a manner that the temp remains constant throughout this process, it is called an isothermal process

7. Adiabatic Process: Process is carried out in such a manner that no heat can flow from the system to the surrounding or vice versa.

8. Isochoric Process: Process during which the volume of the system is kept constant.

9. Isobaric Process: Process during which the pressure of the system is kept constant. .

10. The positive sign expresses that Work (wad) is positive when work is done on the system. Similarly, if the work is done by the system,wad will be negative.

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