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Wednesday, 8 February 2017

States of Matter II


1. Boyleís Law (Pressure – Volume Relationship): At constant temperature, the pressure of a fixed amount (i.e., number of moles n) of gas varies inversely with its volume. This is known as Boyleís law.
2. Charles Law (Temperature – Volume Relationship): It states  that pressure remaining constant, the volume of a fixed mass of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. i.e. V ά T (at constant P & V)

3. Gay Lussacís Law (Pressure-Temperature Relationship): It states that at constant volume, pressure of a fixed amount of a gas varies directly with the temperature. Mathematically, . P ά T (at constant V & n)
4. Avogadro Law (Volume – Amount Relationship): It states that equal volumes of  all gases contains equal number of molecules.
  
    i.e. V ά n i.e. V = K4n. 

under the same conditions of temperature and pressure Since volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles; one mole of each gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP)* will have same volume. Standard temperature and pressure means 273.15 K (0oC) temperature and 1 bar (i.e., exactly 105 pascal) pressure.

5. Ideal gas: A gas that follows Boyle's law Charles law Avogadro law strictly.

6. Ideal Gas Equation: pV = nRT

7. Universal Gas Constant : R is called gas constant. It is same for all gases.
     R = 8.314 Pa m3 K–1 mol–1 = 8.314 × 10–2 bar L K–1 mol–1 = 8.314 J K–1 mol–1

8. Equation of state :


9. Density and Molar Mass of a Gaseous Substance : M = dRT / P

10. Daltonís Law of Partial Pressures : It states that the total pressure exerted by the mixture of non-reactive gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gases i.e., the pressures which these gases would exert if they were enclosed separately in the same volume and under the same conditions of temperature. In a mixture of gases, the pressure exerted by the individual gas is called partial pressure. Mathematically, pTotal = p1+p2+p3+......(at constant T, V) where pTotal is the total pressure exerted by the mixture of gases and p1, p2 , p3 etc. are partial pressures of gases.

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