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Thursday, 23 February 2017

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry II


1. Law of Conservation of Mass (Given by Antoine Lavoisier in 1789). 
It states that matter mass) can neither be created nor destroyed.

2. Law of Definite Proportions or Law of Constant Composition: (This law was proposed by Louis Proust in 1799)

A chemical compound always consists of the same elements combined together in the same ratio, irrespective of the method of preparation or the source from where it is taken’

3. Law of Multiple Proportions (Proposed by Dalton in 1803)

'When two elements combine to form two or more compounds, then the different masses of one element, which combine with a fixed mass of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another'.

4. Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes (By Gay Lussac in 1808) 

According to this law when gases combine or are produced in a chemical reaction they do so in a simple ratio by volume provided all gases are at same temperature and pressure.
e.g. H2(g) + Cl2(g) →2HCl(g) 
All reactants and products have simple ratio 1:1:2

5. Avogadro Law (In 1811, Given by Avogadro)

According to this law equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure should contain equal number of molecules.

6. Dalton's Atomic Theory

Atoms combine with each other in simple whole number ratios to form compound atoms called molecules. Atoms cannot be created, divided or destroyed during any chemical or physical change.

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