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Friday, 17 February 2017

Hydrogen III


Properties of Hydrogen:-
Physical Properties:-
1) It is slightly soluble in water (about 2 %)
2) It is highly combustible and therefore should be handled carefully.
3) It lightest substance. The weight of one litre hydrogen at NTP is only 0.0899 g.

Chemical properties:-
Not very reactive due to high bond dissociation energy (435.88 kJ mol-1 at 298.2 K)
(i) Combustion: - It burns with pale blue flame
(ii) Reaction with metals:- Reactive metals like Na, K, Ca, Li and form hydrides.
Metals like Pt, Pd, Ni (elements of d block) form interstitial hydrides by absorbing large volume of hydrogen. Such hydrogen is called ‘occluded hydrogen and this property of adsorption of a gas by a metal is called occlusion.

(iii) Reaction with metal oxides:- Hydrogen reduces oxides of less active metals to corresponding metal.
(iv) Reaction with non-metals:-
(v) Reaction with carbon monoxide:-
(vi) Reaction with unsaturated Hydrocarbons:-
(a) 

(b) Hydroformylation of olefins to aldehydes: Hydroformilation or Oxo process
(c) Hydrogenation of oils:-Vegetable oils are polyun-saturated in nature. The C = C bonds in oils can easily undergo oxidation and the oil becomes rancid i.e., unpleasant in taste. Hydrogenation reduces the number of double bonds but completely.

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