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Wednesday, 15 February 2017

Environmental Chemistry II


SMOG:- The word smog is derived from smoke and fog.
There are two types of smog: classical and photochemical smog.
Classical smog occurs in cool humid climate. It is a mixture of smoke, fog and sulphur dioxide. It is also called reducing smog. Whereas photochemical smog occurs in warm and dry sunny climate. It has high concentration of oxidizing agents and therefore ,it is also called as oxidizing smog

OZONE HOLE:- Depletion of ozone layer is known as ozone hole.


EFFECTS OF DEPLETION OF THE OZONE LAYER:- With the depletion of ozone layer, more UV radiation filters into troposphere. UV radiations lead to ageing of skin, cataract, sunburn, skin cancer, killing of many phytoplanktons, damage to fish productivity etc


WATER POLLUTION:- contamination of water by foreign substances which make it harmful for health of animals or plants or aquatic life and make it unfit for domestic, industrial and agriculture use.

SOURCES/ CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION:-
  • Sewage and domestic wastes
  • Industrial effluents
  • Agriculture effluents
  • Siltation-mixing of soil or rock into water
  • Thermal pollutants
  • Radioactive discharge

EUTROPHICATION:- The process in which nutrient enriched water bodies support a dense plant population, which kills animal life by deprivingit of oxygen and results in subsequent loss ofbiodiversity is known as Eutrophication

BOD: The amount of oxygen required by bacteria to break down the organic matter present in a certain volume of a sample of water, is called Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

SOIL POLLUTION:- Insecticides, pesticides and herbicides cause soil pollution

GREEN CHEMISTRY:- Green chemistry us a way of thinking and is about utilizing the existing knowledge and principles of chemistry and other sciences to reduce the adverse impact on environment.Green chemistry is a production process that would bring out minimum pollution or deterioration to the environment. Utilization of existing knowledge base for reducing the chemical hazards along with the development of activities is the foundation of green chemistry.

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