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Thursday, 23 February 2017

Co-ordination Compounds - III

  • Two or more compounds which have same chemical formula but different arrangement of atoms are called isomers.
Types of isomerism:
Structural isomerism
  • Linkage isomerism
  • Solvate isomerism or hydrate isomerism
  • Ionisation isomerism
  • Coordination isomerism
  • Geometrical isomerism
  • Optical isomerism
Structural isomerism:
  • It arises due to the difference in structures of coordination compounds.
  • Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism, is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have atoms bonded together in different orders.
Ionisation isomerism:
  • It arises when the counter ion in a complex salt is itself a potential ligand and can displace a ligand which can then become the counter ion.
  • Example: [Co(NH3)5Br] SO4 and [Co(NH3)5 SO4] Br
Solvate isomerism:
  • It is isomerism in which solvent is involved as ligand.
  • If solvent is water it is called hydrate isomerism, e.g., [Cr(H2O)6]Cl3 and [CrCl2(H2O)4] Cl2. 2H2O.
Linkage isomerism:
  • It arises in a coordination compound containing ambidentate ligand.
  • In the isomerism, a ligand can form linkage with metal through different atoms.
  • Example: [Co(NH3)5ONO]Cl2 and [Co(NH3)5NO2]Cl2.
Coordination isomerism:
  • This type of isomerism arises from the interchange of ligands between cationic and anionic entities of different metal ions present in a complex.
  • Example: [Co(NH3)6][Cr(C2O4)3] and [Cr(NH3)6][Co(C2O4)3].
  • This type of isomerism arises because of different spatial arrangement.
Geometrical isomerism:
  • It arises in heteroleptic complexes due to different possible geometrical arrangements of ligands.
Optical isomerism:
  • Optical isomers are those isomers which are non-superimposable mirror images.
Valence bond theory:
  • According to this theory, the metal atom or ion under the influence of ligands can use its (n-1)d, ns, np or ns, np, nd orbitals for hybridisation to yield a set of equivalent orbitals of definite geometry such as octahedral, tetrahedral, and square planar.
  • These hybridised orbitals are allowed to overlap with ligand orbitals that can donate electron pairs for bonding
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