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Saturday, 25 February 2017

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acid - II


Ketones:

Ketones are the organic compounds in which carbonyl group is attached to two alkyl group or aryl group or both alkyl and aryl group.

Preparation of ketones:

a) By oxidation of alcohols:

Oxidation of secondary alcohols in presence of oxidizing agent like K2Cr2O7/H2SO4,
KMnO4, CrO3 gives ketones


b) By dehydrogenation of alcohols:
When the vapours of a secondary alcohol are passed over heated copper at 573 K, dehydrogenation takes place and a ketone is formed

c) By hydration of alkynes:
d) From acyl chloride:
Acyl chloride on treatment with dialkyl cadmium (prepared by reaction of cadmium chloride with Grignard reagent) gives ketone.

e) From nitriles:
Nitriles on treatment with Grignard reagent followed by hydrolysis give ketones.

f) By Friedel Crafts acylation reaction:
Benzene or substituted benzene on treatment with acid chloride in presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride forms ketone.

g) Preparation of aldehydes and ketones by ozonolysis of alkenes:
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