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Friday, 27 January 2017

Plant Kingdom : Bryophytes, Liverworts


(i)  Bryophytes They are non-vascular mosses and liverworts that grow in moist shady region.

  • They are called amphibians of plants kingdom because these plants live on soil but dependent on water for sexual reproduction.
Characteristic features-

    Live in damp and shady habitats, found to grow during rainy season on damp soil, rocks, walls etc.

       The dominant phase or plant body is free living gametophyte.

       Roots are absent but contain rhizoids

     Vegetative reproduction is by fragmentation, tubers, gemmae, buds etc. sex organs are multicellular and jacketed. Antheridium and archegonium produce male and female gametes called antherozoids and egg or oospore.

       Sporophyte is parasite on gametophyte.
Liverworts :
  • The thallus is dorsiventral flattened, dichotomously branched with or without leaf-like appendage.
  • Unicellular rhizoids, multicellular scales and completely parasitic sporophyte or sporangium. Asexual reproduction takes place by fragmentation thallus or formation of specialized structure called gemmae. Gemmae are green, multicellular, asexual buds, which develops in small receptacles called gemma cups. The gemmae becomes detached from the parent body and germinate to form new individuals.
  • During sexual reproduction male and female sex organs are produced on same thallus or different.
  • The sporophyte is differentiated into foot, seta and capsule.
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