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Tuesday, 31 January 2017

Morphology of Flowering Plants III

The Androecium
  • Androecium represent the male reproductive parts of flower, consists of stamens. Each stamen consists of filament and anther. Pollen grains are produced in pollen sac. Sterile stamen is called Stemenode.
  • When stamens are attached with petals it is called epipetalous (Brinjal). Stamen may be free (polyandrous) or may be united in one bundle (monoadelphous), two bundles (diadelphous), more than two (polyadelphous).
The Gynoecium
  • Female reproductive part of flower consists of one or more carpels. Each carpel is made up of stigma style and ovary.
  • When more than one carpel is present, it may be free (apocarpous) as in lotus and rose or fused together (syncarpous) as in mustard and tomato.
  • After fertilisation, ovules change into seeds and ovary mature into fruits
The arrangement of ovules within the ovary is called placentation.
The fruit
  • Mature and ripened ovary developed after fertilisation is fruit. If a fruit is formed without fertilisation of ovary it is called parthenocarpic fruit.
  • Fruit consists of seeds and pericarp. Thick and fleshy pericarp is three layered called epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
  • Dicotyledonous Seed is made up of a seed coat and an embryo. Embryo is made up of embryonal axis, radicle and cotyledons.
  • Seed coat has two layers outer testa and inner tegmen. Hilum is scar through which seed is attached to the ovary. Small pore above the hilum is called micropyle.
Monocotyledonous seed

  • In monocotyledonous seed, outer covering of endosperm separate the embryo by a protienous layer called aleurone layer.
  • Single cotyledon is called as scutellum having a short axis bearing Plumule and radicle.
  • Plumule and radicle are closed inside sheaths called as coleoptile and coleorhiza respectively.
Family Fabaceae
  • This family was earlier known as Papilionoideae. Herbs, shrubs or trees root with root nodules. Pinnately compound leaves with reticulate venation.
  • Floral Formula : 
  • Plants belonging to this family are sources of pulses like Gram, Arhar, Bean. Pea etc. edible oils, like groundnut, soybean etc.
Family Solanaceae
  • Plant body herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees, commonly known as potato family. Leaves simple or pinnately compound. Reticulate venation
  • Floral Formula : 
  • Many of them are source of food ( potato, tomato, Brinjal etc.), spices (Chilli) etc.
Family Liliaceae
  • Commonly known as Lily family. Monocots, perennial herbs. Leaves alternate with parallel venation.
  • Underground bulbs, corms or rhizomes.
  • Flower bisexual, actinomorphic, sepals and petals are absent, having perianth.
  • Floral Formula : 
  • It includes ornamental plants ( Tulip), Medicine (aloe) and vegetable (colchicine).
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