info@urfaculty.com

www.urfaculty.com

Govt. Job/ Sarkari Naukri, NEET, CAT, Bank Exam & Study materials

Monday, 30 January 2017

Mineral Nutrition I


Mineral nutrition is the study of source, mode of absorption, distribution and metabolism of various inorganic substances (minerals) by plants for their growth, development, structure, physiology and reproduction.

Methods to study the Mineral Requirement of Plants

·      Hydroponics is the technique of growing plants in nutrient solution in complete absence of soil. This method is used to determine the nutrients essential for plants.

·    In this method plant is cultured in soil-free, defined mineral solution. These methods require purified water and mineral nutrients.

·   Essential elements are identified and their deficiency symptoms are discovered by hydroponics methods. It is also used to commercial production of vegetables, like tomato and cucumber.

Essential mineral nutrients: About 65 elements are found in different plants. 
Following criteria is used to determine the essentiality of an element.

  a.   Element must be absolutely necessary for the normal growth and reproduction to complete their life cycle.
   b.  The requirement of element must be specific and not replaceable.
   c.   Element must be directly involved in the metabolism of plants.

Macronutrients are present in plants tissues in larger quantity. C, H and O is obtained from
water and rest are absorbed from soil.

Micronutrients or trace nutrients are required in vary small quantity.

On the basis of diverse functions, essential elements are divided into following categories

Role of Macro and Micro nutrients : 

(i)  Essential elements participate in various metabolic processes in plants such as permeability of cell membrane, maintenance of osmotic potential, ETS. Etc.


(ii) Act as major constituents of macromolecules and co-enzymes.


Various forms and function of essential nutrients :

a.  Nitrogen- required by plants in greatest amount, it is absorbed by plants as NO2-,NO3-and NH4+ . It is one of the major constituent of proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins.


b.  Phosphorus- Absorbed by plants from soil in form of phosphate ions. It is the constituent of cell membrane, all nucleic acids and nucleotides require phosphorus.


c.  Potassium – absorbed as potassium ions (K+). Help to maintain cation-anion balance in cells. It is involved in protein synthesis, opening and closing of stomata.


d.  Calcium – absorbed by plants from soil in form of Calcium ions (Ca2+). Used in synthesis of cell wall. It activates certain enzymes.


e. Magnesium- absorbed by plants in form of Mg2+ ions. It activates the enzymes for respiration, photosynthesis, and involved in DNA and RNA. Constituent of chlorophyll.


f.   Sulphur- plants obtain sulphur in form of sulphate (SO42-). Present in amino acids (cysteine, methionine) and is main constituent of coenzymes and vitamins.


g.  Iron- obtains in form of ferric iron (Fe3+). It is important constituents of protein involved in transport system.


h. Manganese- absorbed in form of Mn2+ ions. Main function is splitting of water to liberate Hydrogen and Oxygen during photosynthesis.


i.  Zinc- obtained as Zn2+ ions. Activate enzymes like carboxylases. Needed in formation of Auxin.


j.  Copper – absorbed as cupric ions(Cu2+). Involved in various metabolic activities and redox reactions.


k. Boron- absorbed as BO33- or B4O7- ions. Required for uptake of calcium, cell elongation and pollen germination.


Role of Macro and Micro nutrients : 

(i) Essential elements participate in various metabolic processes in plants such as permeability of cell membrane, maintenance of osmotic potential, ETS. Etc.

(ii) Act as major constituents of macromolecules and co-enzymes.


Various forms and function of essential nutrients : 

a. Nitrogen- required by plants in greatest amount, it is absorbed by plants as NO2-,NO3-and NH4+ . It is one of the major constituent of proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins.



b. Phosphorus- Absorbed by plants from soil in form of phosphate ions. It is the constituent of cell membrane, all nucleic acids and nucleotides require phosphorus.


c. Potassium – absorbed as potassium ions (K+). Help to maintain cation-anion balance in cells. It is involved in protein synthesis, opening and closing of stomata.


d. Calcium – absorbed by plants from soil in form of Calcium ions (Ca2+). Used in synthesis of cell wall. It activates certain enzymes.


e. Magnesium- absorbed by plants in form of Mg2+ ions. It activates the enzymes for respiration, photosynthesis, and involved in DNA and RNA. Constituent of chlorophyll.


f.  Sulphur- plants obtain sulphur in form of sulphate (SO42-). Present in amino acids (cysteine, methionine) and is main constituent of coenzymes and vitamins.


g.  Iron- obtains in form of ferric iron (Fe3+). It is important constituents of protein involved in transport system.


h. Manganese- absorbed in form of Mn2+ ions. Main function is splitting of water to liberate Hydrogen and Oxygen during photosynthesis.


i. Zinc- obtained as Zn2+ ions. Activate enzymes like carboxylases. Needed in formation of Auxin.


j. Copper – absorbed as cupric ions(Cu2+). Involved in various metabolic activities and redox reactions.


k. Boron- absorbed as BO33- or B4O7- ions. Required for uptake of calcium, cell elongation and pollen germination.

j. Chlorine – it is absorbed in form of Cl- ions. Determine the solute concentration and splitting of water during photosynthesis

Click here to view complete Chemistry Free Study Materials and Notes for NEET Preparation

Click here to view complete Physics Free Study Materials and Notes for NEET Preparation

Click here to view complete Biology Free Study Materials and Notes for NEET Preparation

Click here to take NEET online practice tests by UrFaculty.com



No comments:
Write comments

Hey, we've just updated our test package. Check'it out here - https://goo.gl/r7FuPT
Join Youth Apps