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Monday, 30 January 2017

Biomolecules: Proteins, Nucleic Acid


  • Primary structure of protein is the basic structure of protein in which a number of polypeptides are involved having sequence of amino acids. The first amino acid of sequence is called N-terminal amino acids and last amino acid of peptide chain is called C-terminal amino acids.
  • Secondary structure proteins threads forms helix. There are three types of secondary structure- α helix, β pleated and collagen. In α helix, the polypeptide chain is coiled spirally in right handed manner. 
  • In β pleated secondary proteins two of more polypeptide chains are interconnected by hydrogen bonds. In collagen there are three strands or polypeptides coiled around one another by hydrogen bonds.
  • In Tertiary structure long protein chain is folded upon itself like a hollow woolen ball to give three dimensional view of protein.


       (a) secondary structure (b) Tertiary structure

  
Eg. Hemoglobin. In adult human hemoglobin 4 sub-units are  involved. 
The two sub units are of α type and two subunits of β types. 


Nucleic Acid

Nucleic acids are polynucleotides. A nucleic acid has three chemically distinct components- heterocyclic compound ( nitrogenous base), polysaccharides ( ribose/ deoxy-ribose sugar) and phosphate or phosphoric acid.
  • The sugar found in nucleic acid is either ribose or deoxyribose. Nucleic acid containing deoxyribose sugar is called DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) and those containing ribose sugars are called RNA (Ribonucleic acid).
  • Biomolecules are constantly being changed into some other biomolecules and also made from other biomolecules. This braking and making is through chemical process called metabolism.
  • In living organism, all the metabolic reactions are enzyme catalyzed. Catalysts are those substances that alter the rate of reaction. The protein with catalytic power is called enzyme.
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