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Monday, 30 January 2017

Biomolecules : Factors influencing Enzyme Activity


Factors influencing Enzyme Activity


a. Temperature - An enzyme is active within a narrow range of temperature. Temperature ate which enzyme is most active is called optimum temperature. The enzyme activity decrease above and below this temperature.

b.  pH – every enzymes has an optimum pH at which it is maximum active. Most of the intracellular enzymes work at neutral pH. 

c. Concentration of Substrate- increase in substrate concentration increase the rate of reaction due to occupation of more active sites by substrate.

Competitive Inhibitor  
  • When the molecular structure of inhibitor resembles the substrate that inhibits the function of enzymes.      
  •  Enzymes are classified as
(i)  Oxidoreductases/Dehydrogenases : 
(ii) Transferases :
(iii) Hydrolases catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide, ester, glycosidic bonds etc.

(iv) Lyases remove the groups from substrate.
(v)  Isomerases-inter conversion of optical, geometrical or positional isomers.

(vi) Ligases – catalyzes the linking together of two compounds.

    Co-factors are the non-protein constituent of an enzyme to make the enzyme more catalytically more active. The protein portions of enzyme are called apoenzymes.

         The essential chemical components of any coenzymes are vitamins. As NAD and NADP contains vitamins niacin.

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