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Friday, 27 January 2017

Biological Classification : Monera



      The kingdom includes all prokaryotes- mycoplasma, bacteria, actinomycetes and cyanobacteria.


(a) Unicellular, prokaryotes and contain the most primitive of living forms

(b) The cells are microscopic and cell wall is generally present.

(c) Genetic materials are not organized into nucleus and contain naked DNA.
(d) Membrane bounded organelles are absent.
(e) Reproduction is asexual except gene recombination.
(f) Flagella may be present and are of single stranded.
     Example- Blue-green algae, Bacteria etc.
    Bacteria are the most abundant micro-organism that can survive in all kinds of climate.


Archaeobacteria – They are group of most primitive prokaryotes which live under most hostile conditions like extreme salty area (halophiles), hot springs (thermoacidophiles) and marshy area (methanogens). They differ from other bacteria in having different call wall structure (absence of peptidoglycan). Methanogens are present in the gut of several ruminant animals like cows and buffalo, which is responsible for production of biogas (methane)from dug of these animals.

Eubacteria – They are called as true bacteria contain rigid cell wall, if motile contain flagellum. Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are gram positive photosynthetic bacteria. They contain chlorophyll a and carotenoids. They may be unicellular, colonial or filamentous, fresh water, marine or terrestrial. Some of them have specialized heterocyst cells to perform nitrogen fixation (Nostoc and Anabaena).

Chemosynthetic bacteria oxidize inorganic substances like nitrate, nitrite, ammonia etc. to produce energy and help in recycling of nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur etc.

Heterotrophic bacteria are most abundant and act as decomposer. They are helpful in production of curd, antibiotic and fixing nitrogen in leguminous plants. Some of them are pathogenic and cause disease like cholera, typhoid, tetanus and citrus canker.


Mycoplasma – they are the simplest free living prokaryotes. 
They are also known as PPLO( Pleuropneumonia like organism). They lack cellwall and can survive without oxygen. They cause disease in plants and animals.


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