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Friday, 27 January 2017

Biological Classification : Fungi


    They are achlorophyllous, heterotrophic, spore forming, non-vesicular eukaryotic organisms.

Cell wall is made up of chitin or fungal cellulose. Reserved food is glycogen.


Mode of nutrition is saprophytic, parasitic or symbiotic.

Reproduction may be vegetative (fragmentation, fission or budding), asexual (conidia, sporangiospores or zoospores) or sexual reproduction by oospores, ascospore and basidiospores.


Sexual cycles involves the following steps
(a)  Plasmogamy, fusion of male and female gametes.

(b)  Karyogamy, fusion of two nuclei.

(c)  Meiosis in zygote to produce haploid spores.

(d)  Phycomycetes-

They are found in aquatic habitat and on decaying wood in moist and damp places.

The mycelium is aseptate and coenocytic.

Asexual reproduction by zoospores( motile) or aplanospores (non-motile).

Example- Mucus, Rhizopus, Albugo etc

(b)  Ascomycetes (The sac fungi)

They are saprophytic, decomposers, parasitic or coprophilous (growing on dung). Mycelium and branched and septate and asexual spores are conidia.

Sexual spores are called ascospores produced inside the fruiting body called ascocarps. Example- Neurospora, Asperigillus, Claviceps etc.


(c)  Basidiomycetes ( The club fungi)

The mycelium is branched and septate.

Vegetative reproduction is by fragmentation. Asexual spores are not found. Sexual reproduction is by two vegetative or somatic cells forming basidium.

Basidiospores are produced in basidium by developing a fruiting body called basidiocarps.

Example- Agaricus, Ustilago, Puccinia.


(d)    Deuteromycetes ( The fungi imperfect)

Only vegetative and asexual phase is known.

Mycelium is septate and branched. Some members are saprophytes or parsites.

Example- Alternaria, Trichoderma, Colletotrichu.


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